Globalization and Education

Halimah Tusadiah Ginting

Abstract


The uniformity of global curriculum, teaching, and testing may be the result of the world trends discussed in this article. Global educational discourses on the knowledge economy, lifelong learning, and human resource education influence the decisions of national policymakers. Research shows that most IGOs and NGOs, particularly the World Bank and OECD, also support education plans related to the knowledge economy and human resource development. Gender equality in education is a priority for most global organizations. The uniformity of the global curriculum is supported by the comparison of international scores generated from TIMSS and PISA. The neoliberal discourse and GATS have fueled the push for the global privatization of educational services, particularly in higher education and the sale of information services and books by multinational corporations. Brain circulation may also contribute to the growing uniformity of global educational practice due to local pressures to ensure an education that will help graduates participate in the global economy. The growth of English as the language of global trade has made teaching English a fixture in most national curricula.

There has been much criticism of the growing global uniformity in education. World systems theorists argue that this is part of a process to legitimize the actions of rich countries over poor countries. Those who use postcolonial analysis criticize the trend on the grounds that it will guarantee the hegemony of the global elite. Along with many culturalists, postcolonial analysis supports alternative forms of education other than those directed at the knowledge economy and human capital, such as progressive and Freirian educational methods. Research conducted by culturalists concludes that local residents adapt educational practices to local needs and culture, and therefore, in addition to uniformity, there is the development of hybrid educational practices that combine local and global. NGOs, particularly human rights and environmental organizations, support progressive human rights and environmental education agendas. In addition, in stark contrast to the dominant global trend, indigenous groups are demanding the right to use traditional educational practices. Also, some groups are concerned about the loss of local culture and identity with the trend of making English a global language. This dispute reinforces the importance of global educational practice while, at the same time, ensuring the possibility of change in its current development.

 


Keywords


globalization; education

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References


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